**English Synthesis Project ****7**^{th}

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For the second term, students were asked to create a project in a different way. They had to publish their inquiry about black holes in a forum where they had to give an answer to each thread. The topic for the forum was “The birth and Death of stars”, these are some of the results:

**STEPHEN HAWKING THEORY ABOUT THE BLACK HOLES**

Hawking studied for many years the black holes and this theory would change the knowledge about the black holes.

A black hole is a region of space with a mass so large and so concentrated for a long time it was thought that nothing could escape his gravity, not even light. It was thought that nothing could escape the holes but according to Hawking’s theory the only thing that can escape is the radiation.

In his radiation theory or Hawking radiation, the scientists highlight that black holes are capable of emitting energy, losing matter, or part of their blackness, and even disappearing.

Hawking also said that black holes could transport us to another universe in case they are large enough and in rotation, only there would be no way to return. Hawking discovered that black holes are not as black as previously may said. These celestial bodies are so massive that their gravitational field deforms space and time to the point that even light does not escape. Everything that comes close to them inevitably rushes inwards, never to come out again.

However, scientists will take years to create the necessary technology to observe this radiation (from black holes) and it will cost millions that Hawking’s theory can be verified.

**Santiago Ruiz 7H**

### Theory Stephen Hawking black holes

The theory of Stephen Hawking; the black holes, in the 1960s and 1970s he worked on ground-breaking theorems regarding singularities within the framework of general relativity and made the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation. According to Stephen hawking the black holes it is in which the core doesn’t rotate and just has a singularity and an event horizon in the late 1960s, Penrose collaborated with his Cambridge friend and colleague, Stephen Hawking, in more investigations into the subject. They applied a new, complex mathematical model derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which led, in 1970, to hawking’s proof of the first of several singularity theorems. Such theorems provided a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of gravitational singularity in space-time, and showed that far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases , singularities are actually a fairly generic feature of general relativity although it may seem a very complex , peculiar and perhaps counter-intuitive object , a black hole can essentially be described by just three quantities: how much mass went into it, how fast it is spinning and its electrical charge. This came to be known as the “no hair theorem” after John Wheeler’s comment that “black holes have no hair”, by which he was meaning that any other information about the matter which formed a black hole. Hawking showed that black holes should in fact thermally create and emit subatomic particles, and hawking showed how the strong gravitational field around the black holes can affect the production of matching pairs of particles and anti-particles these were just some of the many theories of Stephen hawking.

**Maria Camila Rojas 7H**

### What are the main theories of black holes?

The theories of black holes, according to the scientist Stephen Hawking

what does it mean?

It’s a finite region of space within which there’s a mass concentration high enough to generate a gravitational field such that no material particle, not even light, can scape from it.

There are four types of black holes. One is the supermassive, the other is the medium, the third is the stellar and the last the micro-hol

*Supermassive*

The supermassive hole consists in a black hole with a mass of the order of millions or tens of billions of solar masses.

*Medium black hole*

Is a hypothetical black hole class with a mass in the range of 100

to one million solar masses: significantly more than stellar black holes, but less tan supermassive black holes.

*Stellar black hole*

The stellar black hole is formed by the gravitational collapse of a massive star (more than 30-70 solar masses) at the end of its life time

**Isabel Rincon 7G**

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**The Theory of Black Holes by Stephen Hawking**

During the second term, our English teacher asked students to participate in a forum about Stephen Hawking and the Black Holes theory, the result of the forum is this:

This theory changes the way how Scientists see the black holes, which is base on the general relativity that was posted by Albert Einstein in 1915.During a long time was thought that nothing can escape from a black hole, however Hawking affirmed in 1975 that this black holes may emit some radiation. This radiation is called” HAWKINGS RADIATION “.

At that time Martin Rees from the Cambridge university called that moment “EUREKA MOMENT” Fort he astrophysicist Stephen H. some Scientists believe that if hawking’s theory can be proved Hawking will be able to won a Nobel prize. The theory says that black holes can guide you to other dimension but today it is impossible to prove that theory because we can’t study a black hole near about the same radiation and gravity which it produces himself.

We almost know that a black hole is a celestial body that has an extremely important mass which is compacted in a slight amount of volume, Exist two types of black holes.

First they are formed at the end of a star cycle which contains eight times the size of the sun; These are called STELLAR BLACK HOLES

Then exist the ones which are situated in the center of galaxy’s, whose mass can be billion-time grater; Those are called SUPER MASSIVE BLACK HOLES.

**Gabriela Vera 7H**

**HAWKING´S BLACK HOLE THEORY****:**

*Stephen Hawking was a famous Britannic astrophysicist that made a lot of theories; one of his theories was the Black Holes Theory.

“The black holes dissolve slowly like an aspirin in a glass of water” Said Hawking in 1970´s. This theory completely changed the idea that nothing can escape of a black hole and Hawking also said that black holes also spread out radiation; this affirmation was called “Hawking´s radiation”

I think that Black Holes Theory is the most interesting one of Hawking because is a completely different thinking and a certain one; it transports you to a different world, also this theory makes you think in different probabilities, different universes and also it can make you think on your own theories!

Today Scientists says that Hawking could won a Nobel because of his theory but they know that today this is impossible because he is death.

**Paloma Ruiz 7H**